mantles. Thus exposed to sunlight, they clearly developed the dark suntan with which they were regularly shown in contrast to the white skin of the

women, who were more covered and went out less into
the sun. This traditional iconography appears, for instance, on the fresco of -jumpers from Knossos
(ca. 1450 B.C.). A guy and two girls are performing a bull-jumping exercise. All three are wearing the
Fit perizoma. Only the shade, white for the girls, dark for the man, recognizes the genders.32 This
It truly is discovered in later, Classical times,
worn by women athletes, together with by the barbarian
neighbors of the Greeks, the Etruscans and Romans.33
boots… “; 237, n. 36: “He’s not mentionedin literature,
Totally without foundation.”

Nudity appears in Geometric art, in another context. Long after the Mycenaean age, Geometric artists
in Athens reintroduced the human body in art and
developed a different set of traditions for its depiction.
Bare; some wear a belt but this will not hide their
genitals. In vase painting, also, male bare figures appear, in scenes of funerals, war, or processions, where
it wasn’t necessarily a depiction of reality. It’s difficult to see that such male nudity has any connotation
other than that of differentiating gender. Amounts
wearing long skirts could be either women or charioteers, dressed in long robes based on the before
convention. J.L. Benson has suggested that some cases of a charioteer not wearing a robe, and so
presumably nude, might result from a strong
feeling, even at this early date, “for the arete in the
unclad state of warriors and athletes.” At what period
in Greek history can one safely assume such a feeling
to have existed? Perhaps, in Geometric art, as in Homer, it was just starting to exist, but was not yet
Completely grown, even for naked male figures represented with pronounced sex organs.34
Really, we appear to find a gradual development toward a limitation of nudity in Greek art, or rather a
definition of it as heroic, divine, athletic, and youthful
for men; and something to be prevented for women. A
group composed of a enormous bronze statuette of a youth
from Dreros (more than 21/2ft high), found together
with two smaller female figures, already shows, in the

eighth century B.C., the distinction between nude
It truly is difficult to
Major: Robertson implies the group represented
In the seventh century B.C., there started to appear
statues of naked youths, life size or finished, monumental,
Egyptian artwork inspired the size, pose and sort of kouros, but its nudity was a Greek invention.
On the other hand, the apotropaic, charming quality
of nakedness lived in other nude, or instead, phallic
male bodies which soon made their appearance in
Greek art. Satyrs, animal like human figures with
horses’ tails, were signified full of energy, nude,
with exaggerated huge phalli (or phalluses), on blackfigured vases of the sixth century B.C. who
Signified satyrs in the theater in the fifth century
wore animal skin loincloths with a big phallus sewn
on.”37The herms the Athenians encountered daily in
strictly speaking, bare, since they’d no body. Each
consisted of a male head sculptured on a column, on
which was carved an erect phallus, functioning as a reminder of the powerful magic residing in the alerted
male member (fig. 1).38 At the time of the mutilation
of the herms, the city of Athens perhaps worried treason
as mass castration.
In art, consequently, the naked male figure reigned from

whilethe phalluswas emphawas simplyuncovered;
sizedon satyrsandherms,andon the stage. The two
typesweredestinedto becomequitedistinctbyClassi-

cal times; any initial relationship was unrecognizedby
the enlightened intellectuals of fifth-centuryAthens.
There were to be, in fact, during the sixth and fifth
Greek artwork:one reflectinga magicalor apotropaicfunction (herms, satyrs, etc.), characterizedby the erect
phallus; another, developing from athletic nudity, a
more empiric interest in the nude, athletic man
body (kouroi, sportsmen and male figures in black- and
Nudity was definitely essential for the image of
the kouros.
whom, as we’ve seen, male nudity was considered
Black,40 merely serve to underline the extent to