shoulders, as in Greece.’33 Instead of appearing

naked, as in Greece, the Etruscan Apollo wears a
rounded mantle or tebenna, the ancestor of the Roman
toga. So do a great many Etruscan bronze statuettes,
Analyzed by Emeline Richardson as the antecedents of
the Roman honorary togatus statue. There are indeed
numerous Etruscan statuettes of bare kouroi and
naked dancing bodies (although these occasionally
wear something, a necklace, or shoes, to prevent the
complete nudity of their Greek models).’134 Pliny tells
us, and the monuments show, that the Etruscans and
After Romans preferred figures of warriors, generally
wearing armour, rather than naked like the Greeks.’35
When individuals on the fringes of the Etruscan world
learned to depict the life-size human figure in order to
represent a dead warrior, a hero, they imitated the
Greek kouros by way of Etruria. Such a barbarian
rendering of a Greek statue is the so called Hirschlanden Warrior, discovered on a grave mound near Stuttgart in 1962, and now in the Stuttgart Museum.136

Above, it’s flat, like a stele; underneath, its legs look like the
legs of a kouros. It is naked, but armed. Its nudity
presents a difficult issue. It may have been inspired
by that of the kouroi. On the other hand, it could
Represent a local custom: this warrior, like the Gauls,
may have really fought nude. The completely armed
Warrior of Capestrano, from Chieti, is differentiated
as an important figure by the ax on his left shoulder-and his enormous helmet-but he wears the Etruscan kind of perizoma.137 Some years ago, the Capestrano Warrior reigned as a exceptional picture, hard to
Describe in the context of the art of historical Italy. In the
last 20 years other monumental statues of the seventh
and sixth centuries B.C. have come to light, allowing
us to see more clearly how artists in Italy responded to
the innovation of the monumental statues of kouroi.138
The notion of the kouros came from Greece indirectly,
by way of Etruscan art, where the kouros is not nude,
but is dressed in a perizoma. In this manner, the Etruscans interpreted Greek inventions for barbarian, .

antiquity. The head is like that of an Archaic kouros.
The arms and their position-Venus pudica-are of
Lessons not those of a kouros. A Greek artist in Italy,

The comparison between mainland Greece and Italy in
the Archaic period in the matter of artistic nudity extends to female figures too as male. In Italy many

Before traditions endured-spiritual, social, and
expressed in fresh, non-traditional artistic forms.
The image of the naked female, prohibited from Classical Greek art, makes surprising looks in
Etruscan artwork. Two examples will serve to show how
Otherwise this image was perceived. The first is the
large-scale statuette of a nude goddess, found in Orvieto, in the safety of Cannicella, over , in 1884. Its distinct attributes have recently been
more carefully examined.139 The figure, half life-size,
made of Parian marble, and quite certainly of Greek

workmanship,was busted,fixed,and reworkedin


commissioned to make an image of a mother goddess,
for which the reigning Greek artistic style provided no
model, might well have created such a odd work
as this one, whose odd look expresses a worry
between Greek artistic tradition on the one hand and
native faith and ritual on the other.

Another peculiarly Etruscan monument reflects the
way in which the Greek tradition of nudity was imported and transformed. Again, we have a astonishing
Event of a naked female body. Afterwards in date, but
still earlier than the Hellenistic period, when the sort
was taken in Greek artwork, we see husband and wife
lying naked together in a tender embrace on a sarcophagus from Vulci in Boston (fig. 8).140 They lie
under the round tebenna, which serves as a blanket,
a symbol of their marriage. This kind of picture of a couple
does not appear in Greek artwork. In Etruscan artwork, too, it is
Exceptional: but the pose of husband and wife, united on
the kline, is Etruscan. Etruscan, too, is the similarity
of their way of dressing-in this instance, their nudity.
Obviously, the Etruscans didn’t perceive the comparison
between male and female nudity, so feature of
Greek Ancient artwork. What then did this “costume” signify for those who commissioned the work, or for those
who saw it? Was this nudity a sign of the affair of
the marriage bed? Or did it signify a kind of heroization of the couple, as ancestors, shown in departure
dressed in the Greek fashion, in a “epic” nudity
considered suiting for the afterworld? We do not know.
Also related to female nudity, or somewhat exposure, is
the frequent image of the breastfeeding or suckling mom,
a motif absent from Ancient Greek art. Several monuments, for instance, represent the ritual suckling and
adoption of the adult Heracles by Uni (Hera). The
myth is unknown in mainland Greek art. On an
Etruscan mirror from Volterra, the scene refers to a